The GLCM Tutorial Home Page
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What is texture?
Statement on peer review and citation:
Although this tutorial is not
published by a professional journal, it has undergone extensive peer review by
third-party reviewers at the request of the author. In addition, many users have
discovered computational errors and pointed out areas of improvement that have gone into
subsequent versions of the tutorial in a Wiki-like process without the software. When citing, please give the current
version and its date.
Current Version: 2.10 February 2007
21 February 2007
Copyright 2002, 2007 Mryka Hall-Beyer
Permission is granted to use and reproduce this tutorial
or sections of it free of charge for educational
purposes only, and provided that credit is given.
Please e-mail any broken links, comments or corrections to
Grey-Level Co-occurrence Matrix texture measurements have been the workhorse of
image texture since they were proposed by Haralick in the 1970s. To many image
analysts, they are a button you push in the software that yields a band whose
use improves classification - or not. The original works are necessarily
condensed and mathematical, making the process difficult to understand for the
student or front-line image analyst. This GLCM texture tutorial was
developed to help such people, and it has been used extensively world-wide since
How to use this tutorial
This document concerns some of the most
commonly used texture measures, those derived from the Grey Level Co-occurrence
Matrix (GLCM). The essence is understanding the calculations and how to do them.
- Defining a Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM)
- Creating a GLCM
- Using it to calculate texture in the exercises.
- Understanding how calculations are used to build up a texture image
- Viewing examples of the texture images
created with various input parameters
There are exercises to perform. When you are done, click
the answer link to see the answer and calculations.
Sections in brown italics contain supplementary information that is not
necessary to understand texture but may interest you.
21 February 2007